Archives For Mastering Leadership Skills

Mastering Leadership Skills – The Disciplinary Process

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Modifying Employee Behavior

Essentially, it is difficult (if not impossible) to change the behavior of some employees.   Generally speaking, the only way you can hope to modify or change someone’s behavior is by:

  1. Making them aware of their behavior;
  2. Advising them of the impact of their behavior on others;
  3. Creating an environment which requires the person to change, and providing them with the skills/training needed to modify their behavior;
  4. Clearly defining the expected changes and reinforcing the changes in behavior when they are observed;
  5. Confronting the employee each time the employee responds inappropriately. Over time they may realize that you will no longer tolerate their inappropriate behavior;
  6. Clearly defining the consequences for failure to change and invoking the consequences if they fail to change;
  7. Documenting your interview(s).

Communicating Change

To communicate your required behavioral changes, a six part message format can be used. It is designed to get the employees attention, to focus on their behavior, and inform them of the consequences for failure to change.

  1. Describe their behavior.
  2. Describe how their behavior affects the group.
  3. Describe how their behavior affects the coworker who is the recipient of their behavior (if appropriate).
  4. Describe how you feel about their behavior.
  5. Describe your future performance expectations.
  6. Describe the sanctions for failure to change.

And of course, DOCUMENT the conversation and have the employee agree on the behavior changes.

~ This is an excerpt from Working With Difficult Employee Problems, a Mastering Leadership Skills seminar.

The Intervention Process*

The intervention process is a formal “documented process” which is used to assist an employee in resolving performance or behavioral problems. The process is designed to identify problems, develop solutions, and establish a follow-up process which reinforces appropriate performance/behavior, or provides for corrective action should the employee fail to respond.

Phase-1 Intervention

When you are preparing to meet with an employee, you must decide which approach is most appropriate. Your choice of initial words and actions should be predicated not only on your desired outcome(s), but also on the type of employee you are working with.

In counseling, flexibility is absolutely necessary.  If one approach is not working, don’t hesitate to try another to gain the desired results.  The following techniques are provided to assist you in structuring your next performance counseling interview:

ASSERTIVE:

Initially review the previous conversation(s) that you have had with the employee, and/or events that have happened. State how you feel about the employee’s actions (I’m upset, I’m angry), and discuss how they have impacted on your unit’s (section, department, or team) productivity. Finally, ask the employee “Now, what are you going to do to correct these problems!”

NON-ASSERTIVE:

This approach is non-threatening and leaves the door open for the employee to talk about what they think the real problem is. A word of caution is in order, it may be necessary to get the employee back on track if they wander too far away from the real problem. Begin the interview with a broad based question such as “How have things been going for you in the past (week, month, quarter etc.).” Don’t mention the specific problem you want to talk about until the employee brings it up. The employee knows this is not a social visit and will begin to focus in on the specific issue(s) you want to talk to them about. When they get to the real issue, then you can begin using the counseling skills that we are going to talk about.

 EMPATHETIC:

This interview begins by saying “I believe we have a problem, and I want to talk to you about it before it gets out of hand.” “Quite honestly, I think that it’s bothering you too.” “Let’s talk about it, and find some solutions.”  “Ok?”

 REVERSAL:

This approach puts the employee in your shoes and asks them “What would you do?” It begins by saying, “John, if you had an employee who (state the problem) what would you do?” Listen to their response, if it’s on track with your thinking then ask the employee, “How can we solve this problem before we have to take the drastic action you suggested?”

* This is an excerpt from The Three C’s of Leadership (Coaching, Counseling, and Confrontation), a Mastering Leadership Skills seminar.

Why Leaders Fail.

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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) personality inventory has been around for a number of decades and is one of the most popular personal assessments used. It helps individuals to understand their behavior by seeing how they prefer to use their perception and judgment.

Perception is how we become aware of things, people, happenings, or ideas. Judgment is how we coming to conclusions about what has been perceived. If people perceive things differently they come to different conclusions, showing how they are different in their interests, reactions, values, motivations, and skills.

The MBTI is broken into 16 distinctive personality types that combines eight different categories into four groups;

  • Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I): Do you prefer to focus on the outer world or on your own inner world?
  • Sensing (S) or Intuition (N): Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take in or do you prefer to interpret and add meaning?
  • Thinking (T) or Feeling (F): When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at logic and consistency or first look at the people and special circumstances?
  • Judging (J) or Perceiving (P): In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you prefer to stay open to new information and options?

Your preference in each category gives you your own personality type, which is expressed with four letters in 16 different personality types: ISTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, INTJ, ISTP, ISFP, INFP, INTP, ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ENTP, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ, ENTJ. You can go to the official MBTI website to check out all of the definitions and pay for a self-assessment, or you can go to a number of sites that you can take a quick MBTI assessment for free to give you a good indication on what your MBTI is.

I won’t go into each one of the 16 type indicators except to briefly outline the Intuitive, Nurturing, Feeling, Judging (INFJ) one, because that’s what I am.

My MBTI is Introverted, iNtuiting, Feeling, Judging (INFJ). In an article by Marina Margaret Heiss, INFJs are distinguished by both their complexity of character and the unusual range and depth of their talents. INFJs tend to be idealists, and because of their J preference for closure and completion, they are generally “doers” as well as dreamers. This rare combination of vision and practicality often results in INFJs taking a disproportionate amount of responsibility in the various causes their drawn to.

INFJs are sometimes mistaken for extroverts because they appear so outgoing and are genuinely interested in people, but INFJs are true introverts, who can only be emotionally intimate and fulfilled with a chosen few long-term friends, family, or “soul mates.” Occasionally INFJs will withdraw into themselves, shutting out even their mates. This provides them with both time to rebuild their depleted resources and a filter to prevent the emotional overload to which they are susceptible to as inherent “givers.” INFJs need to be able to express their creativity and insight and need to know that what they are doing has meaning, helps people, leads to personal growth and is in line with their values, principles and beliefs.

Since I’m into studying leadership, I always like to see how my personality type relates to how I lead. INFJs are often reluctant in exercising their authority who prefer to see subordinates as equals. They leave the technical systems and factual details to more capable hands, and work hard to inspire and motivate, not crack the whip. INFJs’ also expect their subordinates to be as competent, motivated and reliable as they themselves are. Basically, they lead by example.

Some of the famous INFJs, or determined to be INFJs are; Plato, Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Thomas Jefferson and Jimmy Carter (U.S. Presidents), Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King, Jr., Carl Jung, George Harrison from the Beatles, and Mark Harmon from the television series NCIS. Some of the INFJ’s that I’m afraid to say that I have the same personality type are two of the most evil men from the past century, Adolf Hitler and Osama bin Laden.

Take the free MBTI assessment to see what type you are, if you’ve never done it before I’m sure you’ll be surprised that what you do is normal for you, it’s alright to be different from others. Once you understand why you do what you do, you’ll become more comfortable with who you are.

After you take the assessment post what your type is.

“When people differ, a knowledge of type lessens friction and eases strain. In addition it reveals the value of differences. No one has to be good at everything.” ~ Isabel Briggs Myers


References

The Myers & Briggs Foundation
http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/

The Myers & Briggs Foundation assessment
http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/take-the-mbti-instrument/

16 Personality Types (free personality test)
https://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test

Jung Typology Test™ (free)
http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp

Famous INFJs
http://www.celebritytypes.com/infj.php

John Tyler was born on March 29, 1790 in Charles City County, Virginia to John Sr. and Mary Tyler. His father was an aristocratic who didn’t support the ratification of the Constitution because it gave the federal government too much power. John had seven other siblings and at the age of twelve entered the College of William and Mary Preparatory School. After graduation in 1807 he studied law with his father, who became the Governor of Virginia in 1808 and held that office till 1811.

He also studied law with Edmund Randolph, the first US Attorney General. John was admitted to the bar in 1809 and worked for a well-known law firm in Richmond and became a member of Virginia House of Delegates in 1811. When The War of 1812 begin and British troops captured Hampton Virginia, he organized a small militia group to defend Richmond but was not involved in any military action.

Shortly after his father’s death on January 6, 1813 he married Letitia Christian on March 29, and the couple lived on John’s inherited plantation, together they had eight children.

John was elected as the Democratic-Republican candidate to the House of Representatives, a position he held from 1816 to 1821. After becoming disgruntled with his efforts on a federal level, he resigned and served as a Virginia State Legislator from 1823 to 1825 and then served as the governor of Virginia from 1825 to 1827.

As a governor, he came to be known as the supporter of states’ rights and a staunch non believer in any form of focused federal power. John sided with the newly established Whig party, which was formed by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster and opposed the policies of President Andrew Jackson. In 1827 he was elected to the United States Senate and filled that position until 1836.

In 1840, William Henry Harrison (the hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe) ran for the presidency and John was nominated by the Whig Party as his running mate. The “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” campaign was the rallying cry for the Whig presidential ticket. They were successful and went into office in March 1841.

John was playing marbles when he was told he had become president due to the newly elected president Harrison dying of pneumonia after just one month in office. Although opponents dubbed John as “His Accidency,” he was the first person to succeed to the presidency from the vice presidency. He would set the basic standard for presidential succession that would eventually be formalized in 1967. He did not have a vice president because there was no provision for one in the Constitution.

When John took over the presidency, many people believed that he should act simply as a figurehead and follow Harrison’s agenda. However, he asserted his right to rule in full and did not follow the Whig Party beliefs. He was expelled from the party after he vetoed a second bill for the establishment of a National Bank of the United States. John’s entire cabinet, with the exception of Secretary of State Daniel Webster, resigned.

In 1842 John’s former allies introduced the first impeachment resolution against a sitting president over his use of veto powers. Representative John Quincy Adams led a committee that found John had improperly used his veto, but the resolution failed. Congress had the last laugh, though; John became the first president to have his veto overridden by the legislature when Congress overrode him on a minor ship-building bill on his last day in office.

He signed the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in August of 1842 which Daniel Webster negotiated with Great Britain and set the northern boundary between the United States and Canada all the way out west to Oregon.

A month later John’s wife Letitia Christian died when she had a second stroke, the first stroke was in 1839 which prevented her to perform the traditional First Lady duties.

On June 26, 1844 John married Julia Gardiner, who was thirty years younger than him. They meet when she went on a Presidential excursion on the new steam frigate Princeton with her father David Gardiner, who lost his life in the explosion of a huge naval gun. John comforted Julia in her grief and won her consent to a secret engagement. They married secretly, only telling one of his children about it in advance. His second wife was five years younger than his eldest daughter who resented Julia and the marriage.

In 1844, he brought in the Treaty of Wanghia, which allowed Americans to carry trade at Chinese ports and also granted them extraterritorial rights.

When he ran for reelection, he did so to fight for the annexation of Texas but withdrew his candidacy for the presidential re-election to support James Polk, ensuring Henry Clay’s defeat. The Senate finally approved a joint resolution in favor of annexation and John signed the Texas statehood bill into law on March 1, 1845, three days before the end of his term.

He retired to his plantation that he named Sherwood Forest after the Robin-Hood-inspired name because he considered himself to be a political outlaw. He eventually became the Chancellor of the College of William and Mary.

The American Civil War started in 1861, John joined the Confederacy and returned to Washington as chairman of a peace convention. He was the only president who sided with the Confederacy and was elected to the Confederate Congress as a representative from Virginia. However, he died before attending the first session of the Congress.

He died on January 18, 1862 in Richmond, Virginia and was buried three days later in the Hollywood Cemetery, he was 72 years old. Running for a Confederate office severely hurt his reputation in Washington and President Lincoln didn’t issue a proclamation mourning John’s passing and flags didn’t dip to half-staff on federal properties. The Confederacy, on the other hand, threw a lavish funeral for Tyler in Richmond, including a 150-carriage procession.

His 1862 obituary in The New York Times described Tyler as “the most unpopular public man that had ever held any office in the United States,” and even that depiction might have been a bit charitable.

His second wife Julia died in 1889 and was buried at her husband’s side.

John Tyler was born during George Washington’s presidency, yet somehow he still has two living grandsons. He fathered 15 kids, the most of any president and didn’t slow down in his golden years, fathering his last child when he was 70 years old. His son Lyon Gardiner Tyler was similarly active in his old age and fathered Harrison Tyler in 1928 at the ripe old age of 75. Harrison Tyler’s brother, Lyon Gardiner Tyler, Jr., is three years older and as of February 2016 both brothers were still alive.

Despite being the former President of the United Sates, he was seen as a traitor and the federal government did not officially recognize his death for sixty-three years. In 1915, the US Congress allowed a memorial stone to be placed on his grave. He was the great great great uncle of Harry Truman, the 33rd President of the United States of America.

Performance Counseling is the second step in the behavioral/performance modification process. The word “counseling” denotes the degree of formality and assertiveness that is required to make this process successful. Normally, after a counseling interview is completed, a written record (summary) is made of the interview and placed in the Employee’s Performance file.

A performance counseling interview “can be” a two-way communication process. In some instances you are only interested in presenting your point of view. In other words, you are “reporting to the employee what you see – and telling them the changes that must be made.” In other situations, you want the employee involved in the process.

Pitfalls To Avoid

1. Failure to confront the problem as soon as it surfaces.
2. Acting before you understand what the problem really is.
3. Acting before you have completed the Employee Performance Analysis.
4. Beginning the counseling process with preconceived notions.
5. Failure to listen.
6. Failure to invoke consequences for non-performance.

If we fail to avoid the pitfalls, we fail to help people become the employee that they deserve to be. We also become a detriment to our organization because employees are not being held accountable for their bad behavior and performance. The good employees also start to question our leadership abilities because we avoid confrontations and set a new standard of conduct.

 

* This is an excerpt from The Three C’s of Leadership (Coaching, Counseling, and Confrontation), a Mastering Leadership Skills seminar.

The ultimate goal in the disciplinary process is to change behavior or performance. Not punish the employee. Therefore, we must enable the employee to maintain as much of their self-esteem as possible while focusing on the desired results. Even if the individual fails to respond to your efforts, the employee should be treated with respect and the greatest degree of professional courtesy that you can muster.

Remember, when they leave your office, you want them thinking about their behavior, not the way you treated them!

Before you meet with the employee do your homework. Don’t embarrass the employee or yourself by making allegations that are later found to be false. Complete the following eight step Employee Performance Analysis process before you interview the employee.

1. Check your facts:

a. Obtain dates, times, and locations.
b. Gather supporting evidence or documentation.

2. Outline the problem.

a. Write it out to make certain you understand what it is you are dealing with.
b. Look at their past performance and behavior.

3. Decide if you’re confronting a performance problem or a behavioral problem:

a. PERFORMANCE:

(1) The report contained numerous errors.
(2) Poor workmanship.
(3) Tardy three days last week.

b. BEHAVIOR:

(1) Acting immature.
(2) Insubordinate toward a supervisor.
(3) Disregarding the rights of others.

4. Identify specific actions you need to take as a supervisor to help the employee correct/overcome the problem.

5. Examine the sanctions for this type of issue.

6. Clearly define your future performance/behavior expectations.

7. Identify the employee’s positive contributions to the organization.

8. Write out (or outline) the main points you want to cover with the employee when you conduct your disciplinary interview with them.

* This is an excerpt from Using Positive Progressive Discipline, a Mastering Leadership Skills seminar.

Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767 to Scott-Irish colonists who landed in Philadelphia in 1765. He was the first President to be born in a log cabin and not from Virginia or Massachusetts. His parents, Andrew Jackson and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson had two older sons, Hugh and Robert. His father died in an accident three weeks before Andrew was born.

His older brother, Hugh, died of heatstroke following the Battle of Stone Ferry in 1779. Two years later, at 13 years old Andrew joined the Continental Army as a courier and in April 1781 he was taken prisoner along with his brother Robert. The British released the brothers after two weeks of ill treatment in captivity, and within days Robert died from smallpox that he contracted during his confinement. Andrew is the only President to have been a Prisoner of War.

His mother died after contracting cholera in 1781, while nursing prisoners of war, making him an orphan at the age of 15.

Raised by his uncles, Andrew grew up to be a lean figure standing at 6 feet, 1 inch tall, and weighing between 130 and 150 pounds. He had bright red hair that went entirely gray by the time he became President at 61 years old.

Andrew studied law and apprenticed with prominent lawyers for three years and in 1787 was admitted to the bar and moved to Jonesborough. At just 21 years old, was appointed prosecuting attorney in the western district of North Carolina and moved to the frontier settlement of Nashville.

He married Rachel Donelson, but the marriage was invalid due to her divorce not being finalized after separating from her first husband. They remarried in 1789 after her divorce was completed but the controversy surrounding their marriage remained a sore point for him, who deeply resented attacks on his wife’s honor.

Having a successful law practice, he acquired an expansive plantation in 1796 near Nashville Tennessee called the Hermitage. He became a slave owner and had nine African-American slaves working on the cotton plantation.

In 1796, Andrew became a member of the convention that established the Tennessee Constitution and was elected Tennessee’s first representative in the U.S. House of Representatives. He was elected to the U.S. Senate the following year, but resigned after serving only eight months. After Tennessee’s achieved statehood he was elected as its U.S. Representative.

Jackson was appointed a circuit judge on the Tennessee superior court in 1798 and served in that position until 1804. Although he lacked military experience, he was also appointed commander of the Tennessee militia, with the rank of colonel in 1801, a year later he was promoted to a major general.

On October 1, 1803, he challenged John “Nolichucky Jack” Sevier (the first governor of Tennessee) to a duel after Sevier had dishonored his wife Rachel by saying, “I know of no services you have rendered to this country other than taking a trip to Natchez with another man’s wife!” Jackson fought 13 duels, many over his wife’s honor.

The only man Jackson ever killed in a duel was Charles Dickinson, a nationally famous duelist whose dueling career included 26 kills. On May 30, 1806 Dickinson was persuaded into angering Andrew by his political opponents. He actually allowed Dickinson to shoot first, knowing him to be an excellent shot, and as his opponent reloaded, Andrew shot, even as a bullet lodged itself in his chest that could never be safely removed. He was wounded so frequently in duels that it was said he “rattled like a bag of marbles.” At times he would cough up blood, and experienced considerable pain from his wounds for the rest of his life.

The Jackson’s never had any biological children but adopted three sons, including a pair of Native American infant orphans Andrew came upon during the Creek War,Theodore who died in early 1814, and Lyncoya, who was found in his dead mother’s arms on a battlefield. The couple also adopted Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of Rachel’s brother Severn Donelson. They also adopted eight other children.

During the War of 1812 Andrew led U.S. troops on a five-month campaign against the British allied Creek Indians, who had massacred hundreds of settlers. The campaign culminated with the victory at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in March 1814, which resulted in the killing of some 800 warriors and soldiers.

On August 9, 1814, Major General Andrew Jackson, “Old Hickory,” signed the Treaty of Fort Jackson ending the Creek War.

The agreement provided for the surrender of twenty-three million acres of Creek land to the United States. This vast territory encompassed more than half of present-day Alabama and part of southern Georgia.

The Battle of New Orleans happened on January 8, 1815, Andrew’s 5,000 soldiers won a victory over 7,500 British soldiers. The Treaty of Ghent had been signed on December 24, 1814, but news of the peace would not reach the combatants until after the battle which is regarded as the greatest American land victory of the war.

Dubbed a national hero, in 1815, Jackson received the Thanks of Congress and a Congressional Gold Medal as his war commemorate. He was also popular among his troops, who said that he was “as tough as “old hickory wood,” earning him the nickname “Old Hickory.”

He was ordered by President James Monroe in December 1817 to lead a campaign in Georgia against the Seminole and Creek Indians. Jackson was also charged with preventing Spanish Florida from becoming a refuge for runaway slaves. Critics later alleged that Andrew exceeded orders in his Florida actions. His directions were to “terminate the conflict.” He believed the best way to do this would be to seize Florida. Before going, Andrew wrote to Monroe, “Let it be signified to me through any channel… that the possession of the Florida’s would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished.” Monroe gave him orders that were purposely ambiguous, sufficient for international denials.

Andrew invaded Spanish-controlled Florida, capturing St. Mark’s and Pensacola once again, he executed two British subjects for secretly assisting the Indians in the war and overthrew West Florida Governor José Masot. His actions drew a strong diplomatic rebuke from Spain, and many in Congress and President James Monroe’s cabinet called for his censure. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams came to Andrew’s defense. Spain ceded Florida to the United States under the 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty. Andrew held the post of Florida’s military governor for several months in 1821.

He was nominated for the 1824 Presidential elections in 1822 by the Tennessee legislature and was also elected as its U.S. Senator.

State factions rallied around “Old Hickory,” and a Pennsylvania convention nominated him for the U.S. presidency. Though Andrew won the popular vote, no candidate gained a majority of the Electoral College vote, which threw the election to the House of Representatives. Speaker of the House Henry Clay, who had finished fourth in the electoral vote, pledged his support to Andrew’s primary opponent, John Quincy Adams. At first he accepted the defeat, but when Adams named Clay as secretary of state, his backers decried what they saw as a backroom deal that became known as the “Corrupt Bargain.”

Still upset at the results Andrew believed in giving the power to elect the president and vice president to the American people by abolishing the Electoral College, garnering him the nickname “The People’s President.”

Campaigning against corruption, Andrew became the first president to widely replace incumbent officeholders with his supporters, which became known as the “spoils system.” The negative reaction to the House’s decision resulted in his renomination for the presidency in 1825, three years before the next election. It also split the Democratic-Republican Party in two. The grassroots supporters of Andrew called themselves Democrats and would eventually form the Democratic Party. His opponents nicknamed him “jackass,” a moniker that he liked so much that he decided to use the symbol of a donkey to represent himself. It would later become the emblem of the new Democratic Party.

The campaign was very much a personal one. Although neither candidate personally campaigned, their political followers organized many campaign events. Both candidates were rhetorically attacked in the press, which reached a low point when the press accused Jackson’s wife Rachel of bigamy. Though the accusation was true, as were most personal attacks leveled against him during the campaign, it was based on events that occurred many years prior. Andrew Jackson, with South Carolina’s John C. Calhoun as his vice-presidential running mate, won the presidential election of 1828 by a landslide over Adams.

Andrew said he would forgive those who insulted him, but he would never forgive the ones who attacked his wife. Rachel died suddenly on December 22, 1828, prior to his inauguration, and was buried on Christmas Eve. He never remarried.

On March 4, 1829 Andrew is inaugurated as the seventh president of the United States. The first military leader elected President since George Washington. He was much admired by the electorate, who came to Washington to celebrate “Old Hickory’s” inauguration and was the first president to invite the public to attend the inauguration ball at the White House. The crowd that arrived was so large that furniture and dishes were broken as people jostled one another to get a look at the president who had actually left the building by a window to avoid mob of people. The event earned him the nickname “King Mob.”

Andrew did not submit to Congress in policy-making and was the first president to assume command with his veto power. While prior presidents rejected only bills they believed unconstitutional, Jackson set a new precedent by wielding the veto pen to change policy.

His First Annual Message to Congress on December 8, 1829 was perhaps the most controversial aspect of his presidency. Andrew was a leading advocate of a policy known as Indian removal, which involved the ethnic cleansing of several Indian tribes. He stated:

“This emigration should be voluntary, for it would be as cruel as unjust to compel the aborigines to abandon the graves of their fathers and seek a home in a distant land. But they should be distinctly informed that if they remain within the limits of the States they must be subject to their laws. In return for their obedience as individuals they will without doubt be protected in the enjoyment of those possessions which they have improved by their industry.”

Andrew signed the Indian Removal Act on May 26, 1830 which paves the way for the emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West who refused to adopt a “civilized” lifestyle.

During his second campaign in 1832 Andrew faced an unlikely political opponent, his own vice president. Calhoun believed the passage of federal tariffs in 1828 and 1832 favored Northern manufacturers, opponents in South Carolina passed a resolution declaring the measures null and void in the state and even threatened secession. Vice President Calhoun supported the principle of nullification along with the notion that states could secede from the Union. Van Buren replaced Calhoun as Jackson’s running mate and in December 1832 Calhoun resigned as Vice President to become a U.S. Senator for South Carolina.

In perhaps his greatest feat as president, Andrew became involved in a battle with the Second Bank of the United States, a theoretically private corporation that actually served as a government-sponsored monopoly. He saw the bank as a corrupt, elitist institution that manipulated paper money and wielded too much power over the economy. His opponent for re-election in 1832, Henry Clay, believed the bank fostered a strong economy. Seeking to make the bank a central campaign issue, Clay and his supporters passed a bill through Congress to re-charter the institution. In July 1832, Jackson vetoed the re-charter because it backed “the advancement of the few at the expense of the many.”

The American public supported the president’s views on the issue, and Jackson won his 1832 re-election campaign against Clay with 56 percent of the popular vote and nearly five times as many electoral votes. During Jackson’s second term, attempts to re-charter the bank fizzled, and the institution seized existence in 1836.

On January 30, 1835, the first attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States occurred when Andrew was attending the funeral of South Carolina congressman Warren R. Davis. Richard Lawrence, an unemployed and deranged house-painter from England. He originally planned to shoot Andrew as he entered the service but was unable to get close enough to the President. When Andrew left the funeral Lawrence stepped out and fired his pistol at his back. It misfired and Lawrence made another attempt but his second pistol that also misfired. The infuriated Andrew charged the shooter and hammered him with his cane while bystanders, including David Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence. Lawrence was found not guilty by reason of insanity and confined to institutions for the rest of his life.

The odds of two guns misfiring is 125,000 to 1. Andrew beat these odds, unlike when he was a teenager and gambled away all of his grandfather’s inheritance. Jackson’s passion in life was wagering on horse races.

The Treaty of New Echota was signed in 1835 and resulted in the removal of the Cherokee on the Trail of Tears. The Seminoles did not leave peacefully as did other tribes; along with fugitive slaves that resisted the removal. The Second Seminole War lasted from 1835 to 1842 and resulted in the forced removal of Seminoles.

By 1835, Andrew had reduced the national debt to a mere $33,733.05 and would eventually pay it off, making him the only president to ever accomplish that feat.

Before he left office in 1837 he let the public consume the 1,400 pound cheddar wheel in the White House lobby the he received as a gift in 1835.

Andrew returned to his plantation Hermitage after completing his second term. He died on June 8, 1845 at the age of 78. Jackson was one of the more sickly presidents with chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough caused by a musket ball in his lung. A possible reason for his death was lead poisoning caused by the two bullets that had remained in his chest for several years. He was buried in the plantation’s garden next to his beloved Rachel.

During the funeral Andrew’s talking pet parrot screeched obscenities and curse words to the mourners and was quickly removed from the room. The mourners knew where the parrot received his vocal lessons, revealing once again Andrew’s passion and his ability to connect to that era’s common man, the reason why he was known as “The People’s President.”

In his will, Jackson left his entire estate to his adopted son, Andrew Jackson Jr., except for specifically enumerated items that were left to various other friends and family members.

Jackson continues to be widely regarded as one of the most influential U.S. Presidents in history, as well as one of the most aggressive and controversial. His ardent support of individual liberty fostered political and governmental change, including many prominent and lasting national policies.

His legacy is now seen as mixed, as a protector of popular democracy and individual liberty, checkered by his support for Indian removal and slavery. Some Native American Reservations even considered refusing to take the twenty dollar bill on their lands due to his impact on their past ancestors.

Links

Andrew Jackson

https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/andrewjackson

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/andrew-jackson

 ANDREW JACKSON’S HERMITAGE

http://thehermitage.com/

 Famous People

http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/andrew-jackson-703.php

 Andrew Jackson Biography

http://www.biography.com/people/andrew-jackson-9350991

 World History Project

https://worldhistoryproject.org/topics/andrew-jackson

Videos

Andrew Jackson

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/andrew-jackson/videos/jacksons-personality-and-legacy

Andrew Jackson – Good Evil & The Presidency – PBS Documentary

https://youtu.be/EGfxyeuy8u8

Andrew Jackson Biography

http://www.biography.com/people/andrew-jackson-9350991

 

Books

Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times

http://amzn.to/22fLMxI

American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House

http://amzn.to/22fLRkW

The Life of Andrew Jackson

http://amzn.to/1UuCjwo

Essentially, it is difficult (if not impossible) to change the behavior of some employees. Generally speaking, the only way you can hope to modify or change someone’s behavior is by:

  1. Making them aware of their behavior;
  2. Advising them of the impact of their behavior on others;
  3. Creating an environment which requires the person to change, and providing them with the skills/training needed to modify their behavior;
  4. Clearly defining the expected changes and reinforcing the changes in behavior when they are observed;
  5. Confronting the employee each time the employee responds inappropriately. Over time they may realize that you will no longer tolerate their inappropriate behavior;
  6. Clearly defining the consequences for failure to change and invoking the consequences if they fail to change;
  7. Documenting your interview(s).

Communicating Change
To communicate your required behavioral changes, a six part message format can be used. It is designed to get the employees attention, to focus on their behavior, and inform them of the consequences for failure to change.

  1. Describe their behavior.
  2. Describe how their behavior affects the group.
  3. Describe how their behavior affects the coworker who is the recipient of their behavior (if appropriate).
  4. Describe how you feel about their behavior.
  5. Describe your future performance expectations.
  6. Describe the sanctions for failure to change.

And of course, DOCUMENT the conversation and have the employee agree on the behavior changes.

* This is an excerpt from Working With Difficult Employee Problems a Mastering Leadership Skills seminar.